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The protea children (proteaceae) - landscaping-gardening


The protea children (Proteaceae) includes a wide range of argument covers, trees and undergrowth that often make superb patch plants. While some of the species are frost-tender, they are in all other greetings remarkably durable plants that often flourish in situations where others would hastily succumb. Poor soils and hot dry positions that scarcely seem clever of underneath life are often ideal for Proteaceae. If any plants could be said to blossom on neglect the proteas can.

Proteas (the term is often used as a group as well as for the genus itself) are a adjustable group. Indeed, the ancestors was named after Proteus, a Greek god able of shifting his shape at will. It includes some 60 genera and 1400 species of Southern Hemisphere plants, the bulk of which are native to southern Africa and Australia with the remainder appearance from South America and many of the Calm islands, as well as two species (Knightia excelsa and Toronia toru) from New Zealand.

There is an gargantuan array of plant life among the proteas. It is about all the time evergreen, but may be needle-like, as with many grevilleas; long, narrow and saw-like like that of Dryandra formosa; or rounded and hard to chew like the trees of Protea cynaroides. Some genera, acutely Leucadendron, add in species with brightly coloured foliage, the intensity of which varies with the season. Leucadendron stems keep their colour for weeks when cut and are an chief part of the cut flower industry.

Protea flora are poised of clusters of narrow tubes that are often curved. These 'spider' plants are seen at their simplest in the two native species and some of the grevilleas. In many cases what appears to be the flower is in fact a bract of brightly coloured foliage surrounding the true flowers. The most impressive exemplar of this is the ceremonial dinner plate-sized flower head of Protea cynaroides. The blossoming period also varies; many proteas and grevilleas flower in winter, while leucospermums tend to flower in summer. With cautious medley it is likely to plants in flower all year round.

The flora often control large quantities of nectar that many birds relish. Some species have very sticky vegetation that will trap visiting insects, in particular bees an this to some extent sinister side of the flower appears to serve no detail purpose.

The South African and Australian Proteaceae tend to be at their best in warm, dry environment and often blossom in coastal areas. Inland, unseasonable early and late frosts often kill all but the hardiest specimens. The South American genera tend to be hardier and choose rather deterrent conditions. Embothrium in particular, can bear up hard frosts and is grown over most of the country. But where coldness temperatures evenly drop to -6C or lower, most proteas demand frost protection.


Other than a apt climate, the key to hit with proteas is establishing the right soil conditions. The protea breed is chiefly adapted to marble based soils that drain very briefly and which often have low nutrient levels. These soils tend to be moderately acid and are often chiefly low in phosphates.

Good drainage is categorically essential. Rich loams and heavy clays do not make good protea soils. If you have a heavy soil do not try to better it by adding together sand or gravel as this will often make the challenge worse; the soil binds with the sand and gravel and sets like concrete. As a substitute add more humus. Proteas would not be glad about the rapid burst of nutrients from a rich manure so the humus used ought to be equally low in nutrients. Artless leaf mould and rotted pine needles work well. To avoid these supplies compacting down into a poor draining thatch, incorporate about 50% fine gravel grit by book and amalgamate the mix with the accessible soil.

Most proteaceous plants come from areas with low precipitation or where the rains are exactingly seasonal. Many are coastal plants while most of the South African genera bring in alpine or sub-alpine species. Knightia from New Zealand and Embothrium from Chile are exceptions; they as a rule occur away from the coast, in areas where precipitation is quite high and not seasonal. Nevertheless, they still call first-rate drainage.

Although proteas are remarkably buoyant and not challenging to grow there seems to be some communal myths concerning their cultivation. Like most myths these have some basis in fact, but they can be misleading.

Myth 1: feeding proteas will kill them.

That's not austerely true. Proteas need nutrients just like any other plant, but their are a hardly more testing than some. It's not fertiliser that does the dent but high phosphate levels and intense bursts of nutrients that lead to overly rapid growth. Avoid most all-purpose patch fertilisers, fresh brute manures and something with added superphosphate. For the reason that proteas will tolerate poor soils, it is often easier not to feed them fairly than risk damage, but you'll absolutely get change for the better fallout if you apply a slow release, low phosphate fertiliser in late iciness and mid summer. This will keep the plants emergent at a snail's pace but steadily; any bolting into development tends to cave in them.

Myth 2: proteas only grow near the coast.

Not true. Many proteaceous plants come from internal areas. They will tolerate salt breezes but there is no broad-spectrum inclination for coastal conditions.

Myth 3: proteas like wind.

That's also not completely true. Proteaceous plants do not tolerate wet flora or high clamminess for long periods and in areas prone to these setting extra exposure to air will help cut down the incidence of fungal diseases. However, most proteas have easily broken kindling that snap or split in brawny winds so there's no analyze to be so bold that they favor windy locations.

Myth 4: proteas need a hot sunny position.

Yes, most Proteaceae fancy full sun or amazing near to it. But that doesn't inevitably mean the hottest, most baked attitude you can find. Though they will continue to exist acute situation once established, excessive heat and famine will cause damage, in particular to young plants. Shade from the most modern sun will prolong the flower exhibit and, provided the drainage is good, rare deep watering is also recommended.

Myth 5: proteas are short-lived.

Some are and some aren't. Old plants are as normal disinterested long ahead of the end of their biological lives since they tend to develop into moderately woody and untidy. You can in the main reckon on a advantageous existence of at least 8 years for Leucadendron and Leucospermum, and about 12 years for Protea. However, large species, such as Grevillea robusta and Banksia integrifolia, may carry on to be efficient patch plants for a number of decades.


Most proteaceous plants are sold in containers and are ready to plant right away. However, the best planting time depends on your climate. Autumn or chill is best in mild areas as this is when humidity necessities are at their lowest, while bound is the favorite time if common frosts are likely as this allows the young plants to get well reputable ahead of having to bear iciness conditions.

Start by digging a hole at least twice the size of the plant's container, this large capacity of loose soil will further good root development. . Extra drainage bits and pieces can be added to the hole if necessary, or else planting is just a affair of removing the plant from its container, loosening any spiralling roots ahead of insertion in the hole, then refilling the hole and firming the plant into position. Large specimens will call for staking to check wind damage.

Cut flower use

Many proteaceous plants make admirable long-lasting cut flowers. Leucadendrons in detail are extensively planted exclusively for the drive of as long as bits and pieces for flower-patterned decorations. Protea, Leucospermum, Banksia and Serruria flora can all be used to make impressive large provision while the less dramatic blooms of Grevillea and Isopogon are change for the better appropriate to more delicate work.

Some flowers, especially goblet-shaped Protea plants dry well though they do tend to collapse fairly all of a sudden after a few months. Other genera such as Banksia and Leucadendron construct seed heads or cones that can be used in dried arrangements.


Most proteaceous plants need intermittent adornment and tidying. This may be to better their development habit or to amputate old vegetation or seed heads that have be converted into dry and unsightly.

How far to cut back is the usual question. This varies with the genera, even though as a rule only light pruning is not compulsory as there is a broad reluctance among proteas to reshoot from bare wood. Of the collective genera Banksia and Grevillea will endure hard trimming, as will Leucadendron, Telopea and Mimetes, but pruning of Dryandra, Leucospermum, Serruria, Paranomus and most Protea species must be classified to a light twelve-monthly trimming.

The best time to prune is by and large at once after high point if you want to leave a few seed heads to mature for use as dried decorations. In areas where there is the odds of frost damage, it is advisable to leave pruning autumn and winter-flowering plants until spring.

Container Growing

Some proteaceae can make good container plants, but you will have to be assiduous with your abundance of potting mixes and fertilisers. Potting mixes need to be very free draining and often assistance from added coarse background such as pebbles chips or pumice. Bark based mixes seem to work well but some growers feel they be the source of too much ethylene, which may harm the plants in the long run. Many ad growers use soil based mixes and they commonly favor fairly poor and brave volcanic soils.

Even plants with low nutrient anxiety will in the long run exhaust their potting mix, so you will have to apply fertiliser occasionally. Use mild liquid fertilisers or elite low-phosphate slow delivery pellets. Provided you are guarded the plants must counter well.


Proteas can be frustratingly challenging plants to propagate. Fresh seed often germinates well only for the seedlings to cave in after a few weeks. This is as a rule due to a fungal disease that blackens the plants and finally kills the young seedlings. Accepted fungicide applications are important. Prick out the young seedlings into a coarse, free draining, unfertilised potting mix once they have their first true leaves.

Cultivars and chosen forms must be propagated vegetatively. The usual approach is firm semi-ripe cuttings in late summer and autumn. The accomplishment rate varies markedly; some cultivars, such as Leucadendron 'Safari Sunset', air strike quite by a long shot while many others may be effectively awkward not including expert equipment.

Pests and Diseases

Grown under the right circumstances proteaceous plants are comparatively free of pests and diseases, or fairly they're not attacked by everything out of the ordinary. The most extensive tribulations are leaf breaker caterpillars and scale insects, which can in the long run lead to sooty mould.

When emergent proteas from seed you will doubtless lose some to the fungal disease mentioned above. This disease, which appears to be a type of damping off, can every so often also argue with more mature plants. It appears to be far worse in excessively wet circumstances or after long periods of high humidity. Good exposure to air and escaping of congestion are efficient preventatives and consistent spraying with fungicides may be in charge of the problem.

Common genera

Many of these plants are not far and wide obtainable at plot centres, though specialist growers would believe them to be just the most communal genera and are liable to stock others as well. All of the species and genera enclosed here are evergreen except if not stated.


This is a South African genus of small to channel sized shrubs. This genus and Leucadendron are the only dioecious (separate male and female plants) members of the Proteaceae. Seed of all three species, Aulax cancellata, Aulax pallasia and Aulax umbellata, is free but only Aulax cancellata is frequently planted. It grows to 1. 5-2m 1m and has fine needle-like leaves. In spring, female plants construct red edged fair plant life that build into red seed cones. The catkin-like male vegetation are yellow, as are those of Aulax pallasia and Aulax umbellata, the female flora of which are not very showy. Aulax pallasia grows to about 3 m and Aulax umbellata about 1. 5m. All are hardy to about -5C and are commonly raised from seed.


An Australian genus of about 60 species, ranging in size from broken up covers to medium-sized trees. The high point spell is primarily from late chill to late bounce and most species have cylindrical cone-like flower heads collected of closely packed filamentous styles blistering from a chief core. Buttery fair to light golden-yellow is the leading colour range, while a few species, such as Banksia ericifolia and Banksia praemorsa, have golden-orange plants and those of Banksia coccinea are red. Most species have narrow saw-like trees that are mid to deep green above and silver grey on the undersides but Banksia ericifolia has fine needle-like leaves. Leaf size varies from very small up to the 50cm long grass of Banksia grandis. Resoluteness varies with the species, some are quite frost tender but some will tolerate -10C.

Relatively few are seen in nurseries but the seed of most species can be obtained from Australia. Banksia ericifolia and Banksia integrifolia are the most far and wide grown and are also the hardiest of the collective species, both withstanding -10C once well established. There are almost not any cultivars or elected forms of Banksia in cultivation. Species may be raised from seed and most will also arrive at quite liberally from semi-ripe cuttings.


An Australian genus of about 60 species of undergrowth ranging in height from about 1-4 m. Most have narrow, mid to deep green foliage that are often very long and narrow with sharply ragged edges. The rounded flower heads, which arrive on the scene from mid winter, are by and large light to brilliant yellow. The most communal species is Dryandra formosa, which grows to about 3m and is hardy to about -5C once customary (most of the other species are less hardy). Dryandras are superb long-lasting cut flora and some will also dry well. They will grow on exceedingly poor soil and in general react badly to most fertilisers. Raise from seed or semi-ripe cuttings, which are often arduous to strike.


The Chilean Fire Bush (Embothrium coccineum) is a small tree about 5m 2. 5m. It has 100mm long, leathery, brainy green plants that may be converted into fairly meager on older plants. In mid to late bound the tree turns vivid orange-red as the honeysuckle-like tubular vegetation open - the blossoming spice is brief but spectacular. Two forms are grown: 'Longifolium' and 'Lanceolatum'; 'Longifolium' is the more collective cultivar. It is a brisk upright plant that is quite deficiency tolerant and hardy to about -10C. 'Lanceolatum' is a stockier farmer with narrow leaves. It difficulty more dampness but withstands harder frosts, up to -15C with some protection. However, in very cold winters it may lose up to two thirds of its foliage. Generally Embothrium requires more humidity than most Proteaceae but good drainage is still important. It may be grown from seed but is customarily propagated by semi-ripe cuttings.


With some 250 species, this is the chief of the Australian proteaceous genera. Most of the collective patch species and cultivars are broken up covers to medium-sized vegetation (up to 3m) with needle-like foliage. However, some species are far larger. The silky oak (Grevillea robusta), which is often seen in mild area, can grow to 20m and in communal with most of the superior species it has large pinnate leaves. Grevillea banksii has akin plants but only grows to about 3. 5m 3m.

The more compactly foliaged plants, chiefly Grevillea juniperina and Grevillea rosmarinifolia, are often used as prevarication plants. These plants grow to at least 1. 5m high.

Grevillea vegetation are often illustrate as 'spider flowers'. This refers to the styles of some species, which tend to branch out from the centre like a spider's legs. Some species have 'toothbrush' flowers; the styles are all on one side like the bristles of a toothbrush. The best known case of this type of flower is the collective red-flowered cultivar 'Robin Hood'.

Many Grevillea cultivars are cultivated and they commonly adapt well to garden conditions. Among the more all the rage are 'Jenkinsii' (a heavy peak form of the red-flowered Grevillea rosmarinifolia), 'Robyn Gordon' (orange-red to red toothbrush flowers) gaudichaudii (deep red), 'Austraflora Canterbury Gold' (light fair-haired yellow) and many of the Poorinda cultivars. Grevilleas are among the more broadly accessible proteaceous plants and most nurseries stock a good selection.

The species and hybrids vary enormously in hardiness. Some will stand barely or no frost but others, such as Grevillea rosmarinifolia, will tolerate frosts of -10C or lower; all fancy full sun with good drainage. The species are by a long way raised from seed and most hybrids achieve quite unreservedly from semi-ripe cuttings taken in late summer or autumn.


This Australian genus includes about 130 species, few of which are far and wide cultivated. The most communal is in all probability Hakea laurina, the Pincushion Hakea. When not in flower, this species could certainly be faulty for a small eucalyptus. It has bluish-green narrow, diamond to sickle-shaped plants and reddish-brown bark. It grows to about 6m 4m and mature trees have a a little howling habit. The name pincushion refers to the flowers, which are spherical, with frequent burning styles. They act in late autumn and early winter, break cream and revolving to red and red as they age. This shrub is hardy to about -5C once well conventional and is by far grown in most well-drained soils.

Of the other species, the most customary are Hakea salicifolia, Hakea prostrata and Hakea sericea. They are hardy to about -8C or somewhat lower and are certainly grown in most soils. Hakea salicifolia has narrow, willow-like leaves, spidery, white plant life that are fashioned in spring. It grows up to 5m high and will tolerate poor drainage. Hakea prostrata and Hakea sericea have fine needle-like foliage and white or pale pink plants in chill and early spring. It grows to about 3m 2m. All appendage of this genus are customarily raised from seed but some can be grown from cuttings. A few, such as H. franciscana, are weak growers that often achieve develop when grafted onto more dynamic stocks, such as Hakea salicifolia.


Drumsticks, which refers to the shape of the flower stems and unopened buds, is a name often used for Isopogon anemonifolius but it can also be practical to the genus as a whole. It is an Australian genus of 34 species of small to avenue sized shrubs, most of which grow from 1-2m high and about as wide. They have a first choice for poor but well-drained soil and will briefly breakdown if over-watered or overfed. Most species have narrow lanceolate plants about 75mm long and some, such as the collective Isopogon anemonifolius, have daintily cut shrubbery reminiscent of Marguerite daisy or Anemone leaves.

The flower heads, which open in bound and early summer, are poised of a crucial cone from which give off abundant styles. Some species have short stiff styles but in others they are long and filamentous. The flower colours are chiefly white, blond or pink. The two most commonly grown species, Isopogon anemonifolius and Isopogon anethifolius are hardy to about -5C, but many species, such as Isopogon cuneatus and the appealingly exquisite pink and yellow-flowered Isopogon latifolius, are hurt at temperatures below -2C. Isopogon species are as a rule raised from seed.


The Rewa Rewa or New Zealand Honeysuckle (Knightia excelsa) is the best known of the two New Zealand proteaceous species. In the wild it can grow to be a tall narrow tree up to 25m high and it is one of the few proteaceous plants to have been harvested for its timber, which is very charmingly marked. In gardens it is more restrained and seldom exceeds 8m 3. 5m. Rewa rewa has semi-glossy, deep green to bronze-green, narrow, lanceolate to four-sided figure foliage that are very tough and leathery. In summer it produces tubular honeysuckle-like plant life that advance from buds roofed in a flushed brown tomentum. As the plants open the tomentum sheltered sepals and the petals curl back to form a congested mass in the centre of the flower head. The flowers, which can smell unpleasant, are followed by conspicuous brown, silky seed pods. Rewa Rewa is by a long way grown in moist well-drained soil in sun or incomplete shade and is hardy to about -5C or faintly lower once established. It may be grown in any coastal area if cosseted when young. New Zealand honeysuckle is customarily raised from seed and patch centres often stock ready-grown plants.


Species of this genus are the most broadly grown of the South African Proteaceae and many are valued for the long-lasting qualities of their flower bracts once cut. Most are medium-sized vegetation about 1-2. 5m high. However, one of the best known species, the silver tree (Leucadendron argenteum), can grow to 10m high and the less extensively grown Leucadendron eucalyptifolium may reach 5m.

Many species and cultivars are grown, but maybe the most extensively planted is 'Safari Sunset'. It is a fusion concerning Leucadendron laureolum and Leucadendron salignum and is comparatively archetypal of the genus. It has narrow, lanceolate trees that are up to 100mm long. Some species, such as L. argenteum, have tomentose plants but 'Safari Sunset' does not. The upward-facing shrubbery closely covers the narrow, upright kindling and develops deep red tints at the acme tips. Deep red leaf bracts enclose the flower cones. As the insignificant vegetation near maturity, the bracts develop into intensely coloured. 'Safari Sunset' has red bracts but others arise cream, yellow, pink or red tones. 'Wilson's Wonder' (yellow and orange-red), 'Maui Sunset' (cream, fair-haired and red) and 'Rewa Gold' (yellow) are among the most spectacular. Leucadendrons commonly arise their best colours from mid to late iciness but 'Jester' a pink, cream and green spotted sport of 'Safari Sunset' is brightly coloured during the year.

The species and hybrids vary by a long way in power of endurance but most will tolerate frosts of at least -3C provided they have good drainage and the dampness is not excessive. 'Safari Sunset' is hardy to about -8C and most of the many Leucadendron salignum and Leucadendron laureolum hybrids are near as hardy. In the North Island leucadendrons by and large bloom in all but the coldest chief areas and they can be grown with changeable degrees of sensation in all coastal areas of the South Island.

Leucadendrons can be tricky to propagate. Moderately firm cuttings taken in early autumn are customarily the easiest to air strike but gardeners exclusive of specialised propagating services may come into contact with harms and though seed germinates well, it is liable to damp off. Backyard centres often stock a good range of plants.


A South African genus of about 50 species, most of which are form to large undergrowth that grow to about 1. 5-3m high. Some, such as Leucospermum reflexum, have clearly upright augmentation routine but most, together with the regularly refined species, Leucospermum cordifolium, are dense and bushy. Both of these species have tomentose greyish-green trees that are as a rule broadly oval shaped, often with small red-tipped lobes. The plants of Leucospermum reflexum are narrower and greyer than those of Leucospermum cordifolium. Leucospermum reflexum can grow to 3m 3m but Leucospermum cordifolium is commonly about 1. 5m 1. 5m.

The plant life are variously described as Catherine wheels, pincushions and sky rockets, all of which refer to the copious blistering styles. These are often incurved, creating a cupped effect. The flower heads of Leucospermum cordifolium are quite round while those of Leucospermum reflexum have baggy styles at the base of the flower. The plants by and large arrive on the scene in late bound and carry on for about two months. They are charismatic when fresh but often develop into ugly once they die off.

Most plot leucospermums are cultivars of Leucospermum cordifolium and are hardy to intermittent frosts of about -5C, but they resent wet or humid coldness conditions, which can often lead to tip die back. Good drainage is also very important. Cuttings taken in early autumn are the most apt to air strike but exclusive of apt paraphernalia they may prove arduous and seed often germinates well only to be killed by fungal diseases. Brave well-drained soil, conventional fungicide use and just an adequate amount of water to keep the seedlings duration up are the keys to success. The orange-flowered 'Harry Chittick' is the plant most regularly stocked by nurseries and it is one that performs very well.


This South African genus includes 11 species, only one of which is commonly grown. Mimetes cucullatus has 40mm long diamond foliage with small lobes at the tips, that heavily cover the brushwood like upward facing scales. The small white plant life are enclosed in leaf bracts that alter colour to a brainy red as the flower buds mature. Mimetes may flower during the year but is commonly at its best in late bounce when the new cyst appears, as this is also red. Mimetes cucullatus grows to about 1. 5m 1. 5m and is hardy to about -3C. It prefers moist, well-drained soil and is not very deficiency tolerant. This species is by and large raised from seed.


The most communal species of this 18-species genus, Paranomus reflexus, is an simple 1. 5m 1. 8m bush with brainy fair bottle-brush-like flower heads in iciness and spring. The shrubbery is anemone-like and very discerningly cut; the flower stems have small rhombus shaped plants just below the flower heads. It is by far grown in any well-drained soil in full sun. Even though the plant is hardy to about -5C, the flora are hurt by frosts over -2C. It is commonly raised from seed.


An Australian genus of about 75 species of shrubs, by and large under 2 m tall and some quite small. Known as geebungs, by far the best-known species is the Pine-leaf Geebung (Persoonia pinifolia), an eastern Australian native that is one of the bigger species, accomplished of attainment 3 m tall. It has a howling habit, fine needle-like trees and small blond flowers. Most geebungs will tolerate about 2 to 5C of frost.


Protea is a genus of about 80 species that is confined to southern Africa and concentrated about the Cape of Good Hope. The species range in size from less than 50cm high to over 4m. Most regularly grown proteas are small to channel sized undergrowth in the 1-2. 5m high range.

The best known species is Protea neriifolia. It has narrow trees up to 150mm long that are enclosed with a fine tomentum when young. In autumn, iciness and spring, upright, 125mm long 75mm wide goblet-shaped plant life are conceded at the tips of the branches. They are poised of a unclear chief cone surrounded by overlapping, upward-facing, petal-like, deep reddish-pink bracts tipped with a fringe of black hairs. Many forms with not to be trusted colours of bract and tip hairs are grown. Numerous other species, such as Protea magnifica and Protea laurifolia, have comparable flowers.

The crucial cone, often with many incurving styles, is conventional to all Protea species but the assembly of the bracts varies. Many have them approved in a stellate or star-shaped fashion. The King Protea (Protea cynaroides) is the best known of this type. Its flora can be up to 300mm in diameter. The plants of the king protea face upwards but others, such as greenish-yellow-flowered Protea sulphurea, have descending facing flowers.

The shrubbery is also variable. It may be needle-like, as in Protea nana, lanceolate, diamond or rounded. It can be shiny grey, glaucous or brainy green depending on the species and it may or may not be tomentose.

Likewise, power of endurance varies considerably. Most species will tolerate at least -3C with good drainage and low damp but many are greatly tougher. Protea neriifolia will bear up -5C and Protea grandiceps will often continue -10C when well established. Proteas do well over most of the North Island and many species can be grown as far south as Christchurch with a barely frost protection.

Protea species are often raised from seed, which germinates well, but the seedlings may be awkward to keep alive. Hybrids and cultivars must be propagated vegetatively. The usual fashion is firm semi-ripe cuttings taken in late summer and autumn. Specialist growers stock many species and cultivars while patch centres seldom have no matter which other than the most conventional plants.


Blushing Bride (Serruria florida) is very all the rage with florists as its Nigella-like frail white bracts are very delicate and last well as cut flowers. The bracts, which are surrounded with discerningly cut lacy leaves, are fashioned generously in coldness and spring. Coy Bride can be awkward to grow, as not only is it frost tender (it tolerates only rare exposure to -2C), it must also have full sun and completely accurate drainage. It is one of a genus of 44 species from South Africa, of which the only other species regularly grown is Serruria rosea. It is a solidly foliaged 70cm 90cm bush with small pink bracts and is to some extent hardier and beyond doubt easier to grow than Serruria florida. Serruria species ought to be raised from seed.


The Queensland Firewheel Tree (Stenocarpus sinuata) is a large tree (12m 8m) that produces a magnificent demonstrate of ginger to red plants in summer. It has large, glossy, dark green trees that are genuinely lobed. The flora are tubular and are approved in compressed clusters that give off spoke-like from a crucial hub, hence the name firewheel tree. It is hardy to about -4C once well conventional but is very tender when young and does best in moist well-drained soil in full sun. Stenocarpus salignus is a species with long, narrow trees and cream flowers. It is less important and hardier than Stenocarpus sinuata. Stenocarpus is customarily raised from seed.


Natives of Australia, the waratah genus includes just four species. The New South Wales waratah (Telopea speciosissima), which is the one most frequently grown has oblong, daintily ragged plants that are up to 125mm long with small notches or lobes at the tips. It develops into a large shrub or small tree up to 5m 5m. The flowers, which are created in bound and approved at the tips of the branches, are imposingly large, brainy red, and collected of many incurving styles surrounded by red plant life bracts. More than a few cultivars, such as the semi-dwarf 'Forest Fire' (2m 2m) are convincingly normally available. The 'Victorian Waratah' (Telopea oreades) is a alike plant with to some extent lighter coloured plants and flowers. Both of these species and the cultivars are hardy to about -8C.

Waratahs choose moist well-drained soil in full sun and once customary they compel a small amount care. But many die for the duration of the opening authorities period. This is maybe due to chief mycorrhiza fault to establish. These close fungi form a symbiotic association with the plants' roots and are vital in the uptake of nutrients. It has been optional that compelling soil from about an conventional waratah and putting it about new plants may help lower these company difficulties. Waratahs may be raised from seed or semi-ripe cuttings but they are challenging to raise. Some accomplishment has been achieved with bandanna cultivation and this is how some of the new cultivars are produced.


The sole species in this genus is the minor known of the two New Zealand proteaceous species. Formerly programmed as Persoonia toru, it is now known as Toronia toru. A small bushy tree that can grow to about 9m 5m, it is customarily far less significant in gardens. The narrow, lanceolate olive green to figure trees are about 100mm long but may grow to over 150mm on mature trees in protected sites. The buff coloured bright flowers, which arrive in late iciness and early spring, are approved in racemes and advance from fair-haired brown felted buds. It is certainly grown in any moist well-drained soil in full sun or fractional shade and is hardy to about -8C once established. Toronia toru is a moderately unspectacular plant but its flora are pleasantly honey-scented and it is exciting as it is one of our more atypical natives. This species may be grown from cuttings, but as they are commonly challenging to strike, seed is the ideal method.

I am a patch book creator and horticultural photographer based in Christchurch, New Zealand. I run a stock photo annals called Country, Farm and Plot (http://www. cfgphoto. com). This commentary may be re-published provided this in order is in print with it and is noticeably visible.


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